Pretty Good Privacy (OpenPGP) is a standard that enables encrypted communication between individuals.
You may have received an email with a “NONAME” or “signature.asc” attachment and wondered what it was, or you might have seen an “armored” email wrapped in something like:
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- [Plaintext message] -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- [Jumble of confusing characters] -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----
By the end of this article, you’ll understand what these attachments and gibberish mean, why they’re important, and how you can have your very own.
You’ll also have the superpowers to strongly encrypt messages, verify the source of tagged Git releases, and sign your emails with something stronger than your name in ASCII.
I put off using PGP for a long time, because it struck me as needlessly complex. My goal is to get more people using PGP as a matter of course and as a way to increase privacy. This article is organized such that you can find a goal, have how to complete it explained, and also understand why each step is neccesary.
It is also ordered chronologically, so that if you are just getting started you can follow along in order.
Note on GPG output
All of the GPG output for my own email address has been modified in two ways:
I am using a preexisting key, so the generation and most of the modification output has been changed to swap in my actual key (to avoid confusion).
The first UID on my key is actually my personal email address, so I’ve changed that to be my thoughtbot address.
The sample output should be reasonably close to actual output, despite my changes.
The actual public key is available on a keyserver near you.
install GNU Privacy Guard—or
gpg—which is a free-as-in-speech implementation
of the OpenPGP standard.
$ brew install gpg2
If you’re on another *NIX system,
it’s likely that you already have
it should be easy to find -
you’re looking for at least version 2.
Because of variances
in how systems refer to the binary,
I will always refer to
On OS X via Homebrew,
the actual binary is
I’ve found that it is
simpler to interact with shorter commands,
so I’ve aliased it as
Generating a public/private key pair
To get anywhere with PGP, you’ll need to have a keypair.
A keypair is composed of two parts:
- A public key, which you’ll publish, allows others to encrypt messages to you and verify messages from you.
- A private key, which you’ll keep secret and safe, allows you to decrypt the messages encrypted to your public key and to sign messages so that others can verify they are from you.
Algorithms which separate keys into public/private pairs are more secure for several reasons, including that the private key should never be on the Internet.
$ gpg --gen-key Please select what kind of key you want: (1) RSA and RSA (default) (2) DSA and Elgamal (3) DSA (sign only) (4) RSA (sign only) Your selection?
Most of the defaults are good choices
for this process,
so let’s start by accepting
(1) RSA and RSA (default),
to accept the default.
RSA keys may be between 1024 and 8192 bits long. What keysize do you want? (2048)
Again, 2048 isn’t a bad option here. The size of the key determines how long it takes to brute-force a key as well as how long it takes to use the public key to encrypt messages and the private key to decrypt them.
Longer is stronger, but you’ll also slow down anything using your key.
2048 is a good lower bound, but feel free to go higher. I’d personally recommend 8192 as the largest currently available.
It is worth noting that 2048 keys will likely be unsafe against “very highly funded and knowledgable adversaries” (The comp.security.pgp FAQ Chapter 4. Keys) by the year 2020.
Requested keysize is 2048 bits Please specify how long the key should be valid. 0 = key does not expire <n> = key expires in n days <n>w = key expires in n weeks <n>m = key expires in n months <n>y = key expires in n years Key is valid for? (0)
This step allows you to limit the length of time your keys will be valid for.
It’s possible to refresh the key before it expires so you’re not completely losing a key if it runs out of time.
I didn’t want to bother with refreshing my key regularly, so mine never expires. Several others at thoughtbot have an expiration for 1 year after the key was generated.
Any choice here is fine, just remember to refresh your key at whatever interval you define.
This step is fairly self-explanatory. Comments are optional, and as you can see I don’t usually add them.
You need a Passphrase to protect your secret key. Enter passphrase:
This step is pretty important, which is why the prompt is phrased the way it is. It’s possible, but highly discouraged, not to have a passphrase.
Remember that a passphrase is inherently longer than a password which makes it harder, but still possible, to brute-force.
Use standard password best practices to build out a memorable and strong phrase.
See “Choosing Secure Passwords”, “Passwords Are Not Broken, but How We Choose them Sure Is”, and of course “Entirety Of Man’s Personal Data Protected By Reference To Third Season Of ‘The West Wing’”.
We need to generate a lot of random bytes. It is a good idea to perform some other action (type on the keyboard, move the mouse, utilize the disks) during the prime generation; this gives the random number generator a better chance to gain enough entropy. […] gpg: key A0ACE70A marked as ultimately trusted public and secret key created and signed. pub 2048R/A0ACE70A 2013-08-12 Key fingerprint = B432 C068 2FD1 C2D0 6A8B 3951 1621 ADC2 A0AC E70A uid Caleb Thompson <[email protected]> sub 2048R/545CA4DF 2013-08-12
Great, we’re set up locally with a keypair!
You needn’t go through this whole process for every email address you have.
I can edit my key to add another user id:
help from this prompt
informs us that the
lets us “add a user ID”.
That sounds right.
gpg> adduid Real name: Caleb Thompson Email address: [email protected] Comment: You selected this USER-ID: "Caleb Thompson <[email protected]>" Change (N)ame, (C)omment, (E)mail or (O)kay/(Q)uit? o You need a passphrase to unlock the secret key for user: "Caleb Thompson <[email protected]>" 2048-bit RSA key, ID A0ACE70A, created 2013-08-12 pub 2048R/A0ACE70A created: 2013-08-12 expires: never usage: SC trust: ultimate validity: ultimate sub 2048R/545CA4DF created: 2013-08-12 expires: never usage: E [ultimate] (1) Caleb Thompson <[email protected]> [ unknown] (2). Caleb Thompson <[email protected]> gpg> save
After saving, my key has two UIDs attached, representing my work and personal email addresses.
Generating a revocation certificate
It might be seem strange to revoke your key as soon as you’ve created it, but what you’re really doing here is creating an insurance policy in case I lose access to my key.
There are some who would suggest writing down the (relatively short) revocation certificate and storing it in a safety deposit box, but I would say that a flash drive or a known location on multiple computers are more pragmatic options, if ultimately less secure. Storing this on the Internet is not a good idea as you can’t control the security of others’ servers.
Generate a revocation certificate:
$ gpg --output revoke.asc --gen-revoke [email protected] sec 2048R/A0ACE70A 2013-08-12 Caleb Thompson <[email protected]> Create a revocation certificate for this key? (y/N) y Please select the reason for the revocation: 0 = No reason specified 1 = Key has been compromised 2 = Key is superseded 3 = Key is no longer used Q = Cancel (Probably you want to select 1 here) Your decision?
Since you’re making this revocation in advance, you can’t really specify the reason, so select 0.
For the same reason, skip the description.
Your decision? 0 Enter an optional description; end it with an empty line: > Reason for revocation: No reason specified (No description given) Is this okay? (y/N) y You need a passphrase to unlock the secret key for user: "Caleb Thompson <[email protected]>" 2048-bit RSA key, ID A0ACE70A, created 2013-08-12 ASCII armored output forced. Revocation certificate created. Please move it to a medium which you can hide away; if Mallory gets access to this certificate he can use it to make your key unusable. It is smart to print this certificate and store it away, just in case your media become unreadable. But have some caution: The print system of your machine might store the data and make it available to others!
It’s a good idea to store this in a separate place from your private key. That “the print system of your machine might store the data” is probably more paranoid than you need to be – printing is a good way to handle this.
Sharing your public key to keyservers
By their nature, public keys are meant to be easily available.
The primary method of sharing keys
is to publish them to a keyserver.
gpg program includes
functionality to push keys.
–send-keys key IDs Similar to –export but sends the keys to a keyserver. […] If no key IDs are given, gpg does nothing.
To publish to a keyserver,
pass the key id
from the output above
$ gpg --send-keys A0ACE70A gpg: sending key A0ACE70A to hkp server keys.gnupg.net
gpg program comes
Keyservers propagate keys
to each other,
so this is a fine default
unless you have
a reason to use another server.
You can also publish your key in other places, e.g., my key is hosted on my server at calebthompson.io/pubkey.asc.txt and thoughtbot’s is on pgp.thoughtbot.com.
The more places your key is, the easier it will be for others to find.
Protecting your private key
There are many extremes you could go to to keep your private key safe.
A good, pragmatic, option is to store it (possibly along with the revocation certificate and public key) on a flash drive which you keep in a safe, secure place that only you have access to. Storing secret keys on the Internet is a very bad idea, since you have no way of knowing when someone else’s server has been compromised unless they fess up to it.
Exchanging public keys
The first step to exchanging keys is to actually get the key somehow.
The simplest way
to add a key to your keyring
an email address or name
which gives you
an interactive program
to select keys.
The search is pretty smart, so if you searched for me as “Caleb Thompson thoughtbot”, you’d get:
$ gpg --search-keys "Caleb Thompson thoughtbot" gpg: searching for "Caleb Thompson thoughtbot" from hkp server keys.gnupg.net (1) Caleb Thompson <[email protected]> Caleb Thompson <[email protected]> 2048 bit RSA key A0ACE70A, created: 2013-08-12 Keys 1-1 of 1 for "Caleb Thompson thoughtbot". Enter number(s), N)ext, or Q)uit > 1 gpg: requesting key A0ACE70A from hkp server keys.gnupg.net gpg: key A0ACE70A : public key "Caleb Thompson <[email protected]>" imported gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: imported: 1 (RSA: 1)
if you were sent an email
with a public key attachment
or otherwise acquired a file
containing a signature,
you can import the file with
$ gpg --import pubkey.asc gpg: key A0ACE70A: "Caleb Thompson <[email protected]>" not changed gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: unchanged: 1
Finding a public key for another person isn’t all you need to do to trust their identity and share with others that you do.
Now that my public key is in your keyring you can encrypt and sign messages to that key and verify that messages signed or encrypted with that key are valid. You can’t, however, actually trust that the person who controls that key is me.
The reasons the key might not belong to me vary, and include Man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks or even someone else deciding to make a key that appears to belong to me.
To do that, you’d need to verify the key’s fingerprint by somehow having me tell it to you in a venue where you can be sure that you are talking to me.
Ideally this would be in person with me reading my fingerprint to you aloud while you verify the fingerprint on your own computer. This isn’t always practical but you definitely want to be absolutely sure the person telling you that the key is mine is me. A phone or video call (if you would recognize my face or voice), verifying on social media, instant messaging, checking the signatures of others who have signed my key (and who you trust), or preferably some combination of these are all potential avenues for verification.
To display a key’s fingerprint:
Signing a key
Signing a key marks an implicit trust. This means that you have done some amount of work to verify the identity of the keyholder.
The level of trust can be specified, and ranges from “I didn’t actually check anything” to “I have verified this key’s fingerprint and this person’s identity in person using legal documents”.
The default level,
which GnuPG will assume if you don’t specify that it should ask,
I will not answer.
This is a reasonable default,
but I prefer to be prompted
and to specify how well I have verified a signature.
A conceptual similarity to signing a key at the highest level
I have done very careful checking.)
would be to vouch in court that
the person the key represents
is the person you met
and that they are the person they claim to be.
Ideally, this would mean that you had personally met the person and verified their fingerprint.
Signing a key is useful because it informs others that they can trust the signature to the extent that they trust you to verify signatures.
If you do not personally know the person you are exchanging keys with, actual verification of legal identity (photo id) and of the ownership of the email address are important steps. PGP Key Signing has a good overview of how these verifications could be accomplished.
Let’s look at two scenarios: Mike Burns has been my coworker as long as I’ve been at thoughtbot. I’m completely confident in his identity.
I met Mike in person at thoughtbot’s annual gathering and we exchanged key signatures at a “key signing party”. At this party, I searched for his key on a public keyserver and he verified his fingerprint by reading it out loud from his computer while I read the fingerprint of the downloaded key on my computer.
Since the whole key matched, and I know Mike personally, I signed his key at level 3 (described as “I have done very careful checking.”)
George is also a longtime coworker. Although he lives in Stockholm, I’ve met him before and am confident in his identity. However, I can’t verify his key’s fingerprint in person.
There’s still a way I can sign George’s key. I’ll start by retrieving it based on the key id he told me in Slack:
$ gpg --recv-keys B51FFCFB gpg: requesting key B51FFCFB from hkp server keys.gnupg.net gpg: key B51FFCFB: public key "George Richard John Brocklehurst (thoughtbot) <[email protected]>" imported […] gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: imported: 1 (RSA: 1)
I can open the key to inspect and edit it:
$ gpg --ask-cert-level --edit-key [email protected] pub 2048R/B51FFCFB created: 2013-11-04 expires: never usage: SC trust: unknown validity: full sub 2048R/E666A729 created: 2013-11-04 expires: never usage: E [ full ] (1). George Richard John Brocklehurst (thoughtbot) <[email protected]> [ full ] (2) George Richard John Brocklehurst <[email protected]> [ full ] (3) [jpeg image of size 8985] gpg>
I’m shown the key with all identities (user ids) as well as the trust level I have for each of them.
I have “full” trust in George’s keys, thanks to the Web of Trust, because someone I’ve trusted has signed George’s key:
gpg> check uid George Richard John Brocklehurst (thoughtbot) <[email protected]> sig! AFEB61EC 2013-11-04 Michael John Burns (Mike) <[email protected]> sig!3 B51FFCFB 2013-11-04 [self-signature] sig! 2846B014 2014-01-13 Michael John Burns <[email protected]> uid George Richard John Brocklehurst <[email protected]> sig! AFEB61EC 2013-11-04 Michael John Burns (Mike) <[email protected]> sig!3 B51FFCFB 2013-11-04 [self-signature] sig! 2846B014 2014-01-13 Michael John Burns <[email protected]> uid [jpeg image of size 8985] sig! AFEB61EC 2013-11-06 Michael John Burns (Mike) <[email protected]> sig!3 B51FFCFB 2013-11-05 [self-signature] sig! 2846B014 2014-01-13 Michael John Burns <[email protected]> 21 signatures not checked due to missing keys
Since I don’t have George here to tell me his fingerprint in person, I’ll go through a few extra steps. I’ve already confirmed that my trusted introducer, Mike Burns, has signed George’s key. Next, I’ll ask George to give me his fingerprint in a couple of different locations: an email from George’s thoughtbot address, our company’s Slack room, and his Twitter account. Once it’s been confirmed in those locations, and given that I know George personally and he gave me the key id to download in the first place, I’m willing to sign his key and confirm that I believe it to be controlled by George.
gpg> sign Really sign all user IDs? (y/N)
This prompt, and the default “N” choice, attempt to point me in the right direction about signing.
While I’m sure that George has a thoughtbot.com email address, I’m less positive that he owns the georgebrock.com email address. George also attached a photo, which I can open in a default photo viewer with:
That’s a picture of George, so I’ll sign photo user attribute as well:
gpg> sign Really sign all user IDs? (y/N) n Hint: Select the user IDs to sign gpg> 1 pub 2048R/B51FFCFB created: 2013-11-04 expires: never usage: SC trust: unknown validity: full sub 2048R/E666A729 created: 2013-11-04 expires: never usage: E [ full ] (1)* George Richard John Brocklehurst (thoughtbot) <[email protected]> [ full ] (2) George Richard John Brocklehurst <[email protected]> [ full ] (3) [jpeg image of size 8985] gpg> 3 pub 2048R/B51FFCFB created: 2013-11-04 expires: never usage: SC trust: unknown validity: full sub 2048R/E666A729 created: 2013-11-04 expires: never usage: E [ full ] (1)* George Richard John Brocklehurst (thoughtbot) <[email protected]> [ full ] (2) George Richard John Brocklehurst <[email protected]> [ full ] (3)* [jpeg image of size 8985] gpg>
Now when I issue
the program knows to only sign identities 1 and 3.
gpg> sign pub 2048R/B51FFCFB created: 2013-11-04 expires: never usage: SC trust: unknown validity: full Primary key fingerprint: 0750 F6BF 8064 E22C 68D2 3D90 0C64 3A97 B51F FCFB George Richard John Brocklehurst (thoughtbot) <[email protected]> [jpeg image of size 8985] How carefully have you verified the key you are about to sign actually belongs to the person named above? If you don't know what to answer, enter "0". (0) I will not answer. (default) (1) I have not checked at all. (2) I have done casual checking. (3) I have done very careful checking. Your selection? (enter `?' for more information):
Unlike the situation with Mike where we were together in person, I haven’t been able to fully validate George’s key.
I’ve gone through what I’ll consider “casual” checking: his email address, his Twitter account, his Slack account, and a signature from a trusted introducer (Mike).
Your selection? (enter `?' for more information): 2 Are you sure that you want to sign this key with your key "Caleb Thompson <[email protected]>" (A0ACE70A) I have checked this key casually. Really sign? (y/N) y You need a passphrase to unlock the secret key for user: "Caleb Thompson <[email protected]>" 2048-bit RSA key, ID A0ACE70A, created 2013-08-12 gpg> save
Great, now I’ve signed my local copy of George’s key, marking that I trust his identity and verified it casually.
As a final validation step, rather than sending the signature myself as described later I will export and encrypt it to the key, and email it to George so that he can import it and publish, provided that he has access to the key.
I’ll send the encrypted file to George with instructions:
$ gpg --decrypt george_at_thoughtbot_ENCRYPTED.asc > george_at_thoughtbot.asc $ gpg --import george_at_thoughtbot.asc $ gpg --send-keys [email protected]
Before I forget,
I’ll delete the files
Sending the key to George this way provides an additional layer of trust, that he has access to unlock and use the secret key to decrypt the signature.
I’ll delete the key from my local keyring,
and redownload it using
so that I don’t accidentally push up
the signature myself.
$ gpg --delete-key B51FFCFB pub 2048R/B51FFCFB 2013-11-04 George Richard John Brocklehurst (thoughtbot) <[email protected]> Delete this key from the keyring? (y/N) y $ gpg --recv-keys B51FFCFB
Now that you know I’d sign a key in this way, you may want to take that into account when assigning a level of trust to me. For example, if a person I knew went through a process like this I wouldn’t trust beyond “marginal”, because I’d not want to trust this process by another person “fully”.
A simpler, and more likely method, would be to have George confirm his fingerprint for me on a video chat, so that I could confirm it was him telling me.
At least at this point, I deem it highly unlikely that anyone could intercept and fake a video call, so that could give allow me to mark a higher level of confirmation of his identity.
Trusting a key
Much of PGP’s strength comes from its Web of Trust concept.
To paraphrase Phil Zimmermann, PGP’s inventor, as you import keys from people you interact with and build your network you may find that you trust some people to verify others’ identities.
PGP allows you to note the extent to which you trust someone’s veracity at verifying the identity of keyholders.
First of all, this isn’t something you would do for every key. Trust is personal and will never be shared. You can feel free to be truthful about your trust that this person is properly verifying keys - they won’t ever know what level you give unless you tell them. You can also feel free not to trust a signature at all.
Additionally, trust levels can be changed as you learn more about a person.
gpg user interface
does not make either of these concepts
Just like signing, I need to edit the key (these steps can actually be combined if I want to do both of them at once).
Since Mike taught me how to verify a key in the first place, I trust that he will verify someone’s identity with reasonable veracity.
Assuming I already have Mike’s key and know its id:
$ gpg --edit-key 2846B014 pub 4096R/2846B014 created: 2013-11-27 expires: 2018-11-26 usage: SC trust: unknown validity: unknown sub 2048R/14A5A932 created: 2013-11-27 expires: 2018-11-26 usage: S [ unknown] (1). Michael John Burns <[email protected]> [ unknown] (2) Michael John Burns <[email protected]> gpg> fpr pub 4096R/2846B014 2013-11-27 Michael John Burns <[email protected]> Primary key fingerprint: 5FD8 2CE6 A646 3285 538F C3A5 3E67 61F7 2846 B014
Once I’ve verified the fingerprint as discussed above, I can assign trust.
gpg> trust pub 4096R/2846B014 created: 2013-11-27 expires: 2018-11-26 usage: SC trust: unknown validity: unknown sub 2048R/14A5A932 created: 2013-11-27 expires: 2018-11-26 usage: S [ unknown] (1). Michael John Burns <[email protected]> [ unknown] (2) Michael John Burns <[email protected]> Please decide how far you trust this user to correctly verify other users' keys (by looking at passports, checking fingerprints from different sources, etc.) 1 = I don't know or won't say 2 = I do NOT trust 3 = I trust marginally 4 = I trust fully 5 = I trust ultimately m = back to the main menu Your decision?
You should never trust anyone other than yourself ultimately.
When you’ve answered, you’ll be back at the prompt.
Your decision? 4 pub 4096R/2846B014 created: 2013-11-27 expires: 2018-11-26 usage: SC trust: full validity: unknown [ unknown] (1). Michael John Burns <[email protected]> [ unknown] (2) Michael John Burns <[email protected]> Please note that the shown key validity is not necessarily correct unless you restart the program. gpg> save
You need to save the key for the trust change to persist, and then you can quit.
Revoking a key signature
A major part of why I’d be willing to sign George’s key “casually” is that key signatures can be revoked.
There are various reasons for doing this, including that a person lost access to their key (hopefully they’d also have revoked it), you made a mistake signing it, the person no longer controls an email address (possibly they left a job), or you realize that the person wasn’t actually who you thought.
$ gpg --edit-key [email protected] pub 2048R/B51FFCFB created: 2013-11-04 expires: never usage: SC trust: unknown validity: full sub 2048R/E666A729 created: 2013-11-04 expires: never usage: E [ full ] (1). George Richard John Brocklehurst (thoughtbot) <[email protected]> [ full ] (2) George Richard John Brocklehurst <[email protected]> [ full ] (3) [jpeg image of size 8985]
revsig command allows us to
create a revocation certificate for the signature.
I am prompted to revoke each signed user id, and I’ll answer yes to both:
user ID: "George Richard John Brocklehurst (thoughtbot) <[email protected]>" signed by your key A0ACE70A on 2014-09-03 Create a revocation certificate for this signature? (y/N) y user ID: "[jpeg image of size 8985]" signed by your key A0ACE70A on 2014-09-03 Create a revocation certificate for this signature? (y/N) y
I get a prompt asking why I am revoking:
You are about to revoke these signatures: George Richard John Brocklehurst (thoughtbot) <[email protected]> signed by your key A0ACE70A on 2014-09-03 [jpeg image of size 8985] signed by your key A0ACE70A on 2014-09-03 Really create the revocation certificates? (y/N) y Please select the reason for the revocation: 0 = No reason specified 4 = User ID is no longer valid Q = Cancel
Entering 4 will let us leave a description.
Your decision? 4
I enter a description, owning up to the reason your signature isn’t valid anymore.
Enter an optional description; end it with an empty line: > Incorrectly verified. This is not George's key. > Reason for revocation: User ID is no longer valid Incorrectly verified. This is not George's key. Is this okay? (y/N) y You need a passphrase to unlock the secret key for user: "Caleb Thompson <[email protected]>" 2048-bit RSA key, ID A0ACE70A, created 2013-08-12 pub 2048R/B51FFCFB created: 2013-11-04 expires: never usage: SC trust: unknown validity: full sub 2048R/E666A729 created: 2013-11-04 expires: never usage: E [ full ] (1). George Richard John Brocklehurst (thoughtbot) <[email protected]> [ full ] (2) George Richard John Brocklehurst <[email protected]> [ full ] (3) [jpeg image of size 8985] gpg> save
You can now publish the revocation certificate, and the key signature would no longer be valid.
Of course, I didn’t actually revoke this key signature.
Publishing your changes
Just like when I created my original key,
I can push up changes such as signing
--send-keys command and key ids:
$ gpg --send-keys B51FFCFB 2846B014
For Fun and Profit
So you’ve followed this guide, have a key and have potentially signed or trusted other keys.
There are some interesting things you can do with your new setup.
Signing Git commits and tags
A major benefit of using PGP is that you’re able to sign your commits and tags, allowing others to verify that they have versions of software from a trusted source.
Why Sign Commits?
Just like emails and other messages, a commit signed by someone in your Web of Trust (WoT) can be confirmed to be from a trusted source. Even if the signer is not in your WoT, you can still fairly simply verify their signature is valid.
A strict policy of signing all commits,
could prevent someone committing as you
from fully blaming you for a change.
An even stricter policy of only allowing commits signed by those in a maintainer’s Web of Trust could help to ensure that a codebase’s quality, security, etc. were maintained.
Git knows how to verify commit and tag signatures, so it’s simple to do so.
$ git log --show-signature commit 8499951498cac1be0e7db1cf7d7e01d443be2916 gpg: Signature made Tue Oct 28 18:41:31 2014 CDT using RSA key ID A0ACE70A gpg: Good signature from "Caleb Thompson <[email protected]>" gpg: aka "Caleb Thompson <[email protected]>" Author: Caleb Thompson <[email protected]> Date: Tue Oct 28 18:41:22 2014 -0500
Why Sign Tags?
Simpler than signing commits, signing a tag states that you have looked over the commits leading up to the tagged commit and that you made a commit.
This is particularly useful for verifying the source of released versions of software libraries.
Since it is just as easy to forge a tag identity as a commit identity, PGP-signing tags is still a good idea. It is also less obtrusive than with commits, since tags happen less often.
To verify a tag:
$ git tag --verify v1.1.0 object 239fc554285c4d21fee71d9de79d88c4ebe4936e type commit tag v1.1.0 tagger Caleb Thompson <[email protected]> 1412371030 -0500 griddler 1.1.0 gpg: Signature made Fri Oct 3 16:17:10 2014 CDT using RSA key ID A0ACE70A gpg: Good signature from "Caleb Thompson <[email protected]>" gpg: aka "Caleb Thompson <[email protected]>"
You can tell
git-commit to sign a commit
by passing the
with a key id (hex or name/email).
$ git commit --gpg-sign A0ACE70A
The argument is optional if you’ve configured a signing key.
You can tell
git-tag to sign a commit
--sign to use the default Git
or by passing
--local-user and a key ID.
those couldn’t be the same argument
Tim Pope wrote a great tool
for managing Git tags and GitHub Releases,
I use this myself for managing releases of Griddler, Formulaic, and Scenic and it makes it quite easy to create not only signed tags, but also meaningfully annotated tags.
Unfortunately GitHub do not (yet) display any sort of PGP signature.
Configure signing key
Configuring your signing key is fairly simple.
$ git config --global user.signingkey "Caleb Thompson <[email protected]>"
Configure Git to always sign commits
If you choose,
you can also configure
to default to signing all commits:
$ git config --global commit.gpgsign true
It’s worth noting that without using an agent to manage your key, this can result in needing to type your passphrase a lot during operations such as rebasing, interactive commits, or stashes.
Signing and encrypting emails
First, a word on etiquette:
It’s important when you receive an encrypted message that you not respond in plaintext with the original encrypted message quoted.
Ideally, when you receive an encrypted message you should respond with an encrypted message.
Whenever messaging someone whose key I have or who sends me a message with a signature attached I send further emails encrypted.
Basically, this means that I use encryption whenever possible.
This isn’t any more difficult for me than signing, and assuming the message recipient also has a reasonable setup, they’ll only need to enter their passphrase to read the message.
Setting up Mutt for PGP
My mutt configuration represents a fairly normal mutt/PGP setup.
It includes signing emails by default as attachments, which to most people looks like “NONAME” or “signature.asc”, but for others with a PGP setup is a lot more useful than your name at the end.
gpg2(1) have extensive documentation
on these settings,
and I’ll leave that research as an exercise for the reader.
From the email compose view, press p to open the PGP menu:
PGP (e)ncrypt, (s)ign, sign (a)s, (b)oth, (i)nline format, or (c)lear?
the configuration I linked earlier will
as the default configured key,
and this menu allows you to change that behavior
for a specific email.
Generally when encrypting,
it makes sense to select
so that you have a signature added as well.
(i)nline format provides the ASCII-armored
format I made fun of at the beginning of this article.
There are one or two mail clients,
such as K-9 mail,
which only understand this format.
Setting up Mail.app for PGP
If you’re planning to use PGP with Mail.app, GPGTools provide GPGMail for integration with your PGP key, as well as some other GPG tools that provide a GUI interface to OpenPGP.
Using an agent for managing your passphrase
Agents are programs which remember your GPG passphrase for a limited time, allowing you to enter it once and not need to re-enter it for some set amount of time, which is really nice during rebases or stashes in Git or when sending several emails in a short amount of time.
I use the
which should be available
in your favorite package manager.
Revoking a key
Revoking a key is something you want to do when you’ve lost access to a secret key, or someone else has gained control of it.
If you’ve already generated a key using the method in the Generating a revocation certificate section, you can import it and send it to keyservers with:
$ gpg --import revoke.asc $ gpg --send-keys [your key id]
I don’t have output for this because I don’t want to revoke my key.
If you haven’t generated a revocation certificate, you still can if you have access to the secret key. Use the instructions from the Generating a revocation certificate section to do so.
Otherwise, in the words of Phil Zimmermann, “I’m sorry, you’re hosed.”
Either way, it’s a good idea to sign your old public key with your new key so that there is a link between the two.
Doing so will also connect your old and new webs of trust, which should help in re-confirming people.
Bibliography and Further Reading
- The GNU Privacy Handbook
- Exchanging Keys
- PGP Setup
- PGP Trust
- Is it okay to sign a PGP key without an IRL meeting?
- How to revoke a GnuPG/PGP signature on a key
- MuttGuide / UseGPG is a great reference on setting up Mutt to use PGP.
- A Git Horror Story details why you might want to sign commits and tags using PGP.
Special thanks to Mike Burns and Pat Brisbin, who have been instrumental in my own PGP education, and to George Brocklehurst and Mike Burns for kindly allowing the use of their keys in my examples.